Over the past 20 years, the transition to parenting has been widely investigated as much in nursing as in psychology. The challenges of this developmental period, such as developing parenting efficacy, and the resources available to one or both parents have been explored. Different factors have been found to influence parents' perceived efficacy, such as the quality of social support, the quality of the marital relationship, and the level of stress and anxiety. Little attention has been paid, however, to the influence of nurses' relationships with parents on parents' development of parenting efficacy, especially with multiparous parents. This information is needed to better understand nurses' contribution to parenting development. A model of the primary variables of interest -- perceived parenting efficacy, critical events, and nurses' collaborative and help-giving practices -- is presented.